First Nations peoples have long believed in the power of spirit animals or totems. Tribal beliefs held that these animals had lessons to teach, as well as healing or inspirational powers. Bears symbolized leadership and courage. Buffalo held the power of life. The coyote was thought to have brought survival knowledge to humans but also death. Turtles are symbols of peace and balance. And the wolf was considered a great teacher, who taught humans how to build communities and to hunt. Wayne Arthurson writes with authority on the tradition of spirit animals and how their meaning reflects the spiritual and physical relationship between humans and Nature.